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Fashion - Wikipedia


Fashion is a popular aesthetic expression in a certain time and context, especially in clothingfootwearlifestyleaccessoriesmakeuphairstyle and body proportions. BaroqueRococoetc. Even though they are often used together, the term fashion differs from clothes and costume, where the first describes the material and technical garment, whereas the second has been relegated to special senses like fancy-dress or masquerade wear.

Fashion instead describes the social and temporal system that "activates" dress as a social signifier in a certain time and context. Philosopher Georgio Agamben connects fashion to the current intensity of the qualitative moment, article about fashion, to the temporal aspect the Greek called kairoswhereas clothes belong to the quantitative, to what the Greek called chronos. Exclusive brands aspire for the label haute couturebut the term is technically limited to members of the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture in Paris.

With increasing mass-production of consumer commodities at cheaper prices, and with global reach, sustainability has become an article about fashion issue amongst politicians, brands and consumers. Early Western travelers, traveling whether to IndiaPersia, Turkey or China, would frequently remark on the absence of change in fashion in those countries.

Similar changes in fashion occurred in the 11th century in the Middle East following the arrival of the Turkswho introduced clothing styles from Central Asia and the Far East. Additionally, article about fashion, there is a long history of fashion in West Africa.

The beginning in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in clothing styles can be fairly reliably dated. Historians, including James Laver and Fernand Braudeldate the start of Western fashion in clothing to the middle of the 14th century[12] [13] though they tend to rely heavily on contemporary imagery [14] and illuminated manuscripts were not common before the fourteenth century.

This created the distinctive Western outline of a tailored top worn over leggings or trousers. The pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women and article about fashion fashion, especially in the dressing and article about fashion of the hair, article about fashion, became equally complex.

Art historians are therefore able to use fashion with confidence and precision to date images, often to within five years, particularly in the case of images from the 15th century. Initially, changes in fashion led to a fragmentation across the upper classes of Europe of what had previously been a very similar style of dressing and the subsequent development of distinctive national styles. In the 16th century, national differences were at their most pronounced.

Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats. The "Spanish style" of the late 16th century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, article about fashion, and after a struggle in the midth century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century.

Though different textile colors and patterns changed from year to year, [20] the cut of a gentleman's coat and the length of his waistcoat, article about fashion, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut, changed more slowly. Men's fashions were largely derived from military models, and changes in a European male silhouette were galvanized in theaters of European war where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles such as the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie.

Though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France since the 16th century and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion in the s, the pace of article about fashion picked up in the s with increased publication of French engravings illustrating the latest Paris styles.

Byall Western Europeans were dressing alike or thought they were ; local variation became first a sign of provincial culture and later a badge of the conservative peasant, article about fashion. Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt article about fashion for many innovations, and the textile industry certainly led many trends, the history of fashion design article about fashion normally understood to date from when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture house in Paris.

The Haute house was the name established by government for the fashion houses that met the standards of industry. These fashion houses have to adhere to standards such as keeping at least twenty employees engaged in making the clothes, showing two collections per year at fashion shows, and presenting a certain article about fashion of patterns to costumers.

Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous. The impact of unisex expands more broadly to encompass various themes in fashion including androgyny, mass-market retail, and conceptual clothing, article about fashion. Some men's styles blended the sensuality and expressiveness despite the conservative trend, the growing gay-rights movement and an emphasis on youth allowed for a new freedom to experiment with style, fabrics such as wool crepe, which had previously been associated with women's attire was used by designers when creating male clothing.

The four major current fashion capitals are acknowledged to be Paris, Milan, New York City, and London, which are all headquarters to the greatest fashion companies and are renowned for their major influence on global fashion. Fashion weeks are held in these cities, where designers exhibit their new clothing collections to audiences.

A succession of major designers article about fashion as Coco Chanel article about fashion Yves Saint-Laurent have kept Paris as the center most watched by the rest of the world, although haute couture is now subsidized by the sale of ready-to-wear collections and perfume using the same branding, article about fashion.

Modern Westerners have a wide number of choices available in the selection of their clothes. What a person chooses to wear can reflect his or her personality or interests. When people who have high cultural status start to wear new or different clothes, a fashion trend may start.

People who like or respect these people become influenced by their personal style and begin wearing similarly styled clothes. Fashions may vary considerably within a society according to age, social classgeneration, occupation, and geography and may also vary over time.

If an older person dresses according to the fashion young people use, he or she may look ridiculous in the eyes of both young and older people. The terms fashionista and fashion victim refer to someone who slavishly follows current fashions. One can regard the system of sporting various fashions as a fashion language incorporating various fashion statements using a grammar of fashion.

Compare some of article about fashion work of Roland Barthes. In recent years, Asian fashion has become increasingly significant in local and global markets. Countries such as China, Japan, India, and Pakistan have traditionally had large textile industries, which have often article about fashion drawn upon by Western designers, but now Asian clothing styles are also gaining influence based on their own ideas.

The article about fashion of global fashion industry is a product of the modern age. It was handmade for individuals, either as home production or on order from dressmakers and tailors. By the beginning of the 20th century—with the rise of new technologies such as the sewing machinethe rise of global capitalism and the development of the factory system of production, and the proliferation of retail outlets such as department stores—clothing had increasingly come to be mass-produced in standard sizes and sold at fixed prices.

Although the fashion industry developed first in Europe and America, as of article about fashionit is an international and highly globalized industry, with clothing often designed in one country, manufactured in another, and sold worldwide. For example, an American fashion company might source fabric in China and have the clothes manufactured in Vietnam, finished in Italy, and shipped to a warehouse in the United States for distribution to retail outlets internationally, article about fashion.

The fashion industry has long article about fashion one of the largest employers in the United States, [30] and it remains so in the 21st century. However, U. Because data on the fashion industry typically are reported for national economies and expressed in terms of the industry's many separate sectors, aggregate figures for world production of textiles and clothing are difficult to obtain.

However, by any measure, article about fashion, the clothing industry accounts for a significant share of world economic output. These levels consist of many separate but interdependent sectors.

Each sector is devoted to the goal of satisfying consumer demand for apparel under conditions that enable participants in the industry to operate at a profit. Fashion trends are influenced by several factors including cinema, celebrities, article about fashion, creative explorations, article about fashion, political, economical, social and technological.

Examining these factors is called a PEST analysis. Fashion forecasters can use this information to help determine growth or decline of a particular trend. Fashion trends change daily, it can not stay unchanged, article about fashion. Not only did political events article about fashion a huge impact on fashion trends article about fashion also the political figure played a critical role in forecasting the fashion trend. For example, First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy was a fashionable icon of the early s who led formal dressing trend.

By wearing a Chanel suit, a structural Givenchy shift dress or a soft color Cassini coat with huge buttons, it created her elegant look and led a delicate trend. Furthermore, political revolution also made much impact on the fashion trend.

For example, during the s the economy had become wealthier, divorce rate was increasing and government approved the birth control pill. This revolution inspired younger generation to rebellion. Inthe leg-baring miniskirt has become a major fashion trend of the s. Given that fashion designers began to experiment with the shapes of garment, loose sleeveless, micro-minis, flared skirts, and trumpet sleeves.

In this case, article about fashion, mini-skirt trend became an icon of the s. Article about fashion, political movement built an impressive relationship with fashion trend.

For instance, during Vietnam war, the youth of America made a movement that affected the whole country, article about fashion. In the s, article about fashion, the fashion trend was full of fluorescent colors, prints patterns, bell-bottom jeans, fringed vests, and skirt became a protest outfit of the s. This trend was called Hippie and it is still affecting current fashion trend. Technology plays a large role in most aspects of today's society.

Technological influences are growing more apparent in the fashion industry. Advances and article about fashion developments are shaping and creating article about fashion and future trends. Developments such as wearable technology have become an important trend in fashion and will continue with advances such as clothing constructed with solar panels that charge devices and smart fabrics that enhance wearer comfort by changing color or texture based on environmental changes.

The fashion industry is seeing how 3D printing technology has influenced designers such as Iris Van Herpen and Kimberly Ovitz.

These designers have been heavily experimenting and developing 3D printed couture pieces. As the technology grows, the 3D printers will become more accessible to designers and eventually consumers, article about fashion, which could potentially shape the fashion industry entirely.

Internet technology such as online retailers and social media platforms have given way for trends to be identified, marketed and sold immediately. Posts on Instagram or Facebook can easily increase awareness about new trends in fashion, which subsequently may create high demand for specific items or brands, [37] new "buy now button" article about fashion can link these styles with direct sales.

Article about fashion vision technology has been developed to track how fashions spread through society. The industry can now see the direct correlation on how fashion shows influence street-chic outfits. The effects can now be quantified and provide valuable feedback to fashion houses, designers and consumers regarding trends.

Military technology has played an important role in the fashion industry. The camouflage pattern in clothing was developed to help military personnel be less visible to enemy forces. A trend emerged in the s and camouflage fabric was introduced to street wear.

The camouflage fabric trend disappeared and resurfaced several times since then. Camouflage article about fashion to appear in high fashion by the s. Fashion relates to social and cultural context of an environment. According to Matika, [40] "Elements of popular culture become fused when a person's trend is associated with a preference for a genre of music…like music, news or literature, fashion has been fused into everyday lives. Atop a New Orleans police car in a red-and-white Gucci high-collar dress and combat boots, she sits among the ruins of Hurricane Katrina, immediately implanting herself in the biggest national debate on article about fashion brutality and race relations in modern day.

Runway show is a reflection of fashion trend and a designer's thought. For designer like Vivienne Westwood, runway shows are a platform for her voice on politics and current events. For her AW15 menswear show, according to Water, [42] "where models with severely bruised faces channeled eco-warriors on a mission to save the planet. With increasing environmental awareness, the economic imperative to "Spend now, think later" is getting increasingly scrutinized.

People have also become more conscious of the impact their everyday consumption has on the environment and society, and these initiatives are often described as a move towards sustainable fashionyet critics argue a circular economy based on growth is an oxymoron, or an increasing spiral of consumption, rather than a utopian cradle-to-cradle circular solution.

In today's linear economical system, manufacturers extract resources from the earth to make products that will soon be discarded in landfills, on the other hand, under the circular model, the production of goods operates like systems in nature, where the waste and demise of a substance becomes the food and source of growth for something new.

This Dutch company "represents a new consuming philosophy that is about using instead of owning," according to MUD's website, article about fashion. The concept also protects the company from volatile cotton prices.

 

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Read Fashion on The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones, a News Corp company. News Corp is a network of leading companies in the worlds of diversified media, news, education, and information pjointones.gq: Wall Street Journal. From fashion week coverage and the best dressed stars on the red carpet, to what's chic on the streets and trends to watch out for this season, the ELLE editors give you behind-the-scenes access. Ask Vanessa Friedman Your Burning Style Questions. Each week, The Times’s fashion director and chief fashion critic will answer a fashion query — for men or women — in our new fashion.